Question: Can people who are lactose intolerant still enjoy cheese?
Answer: First, it is important to differentiate between being lactose intolerant and having dairy allergies. Lactose intolerance is characterized by the inability to digest lactose sugar, one of the major components in milk. On the other hand, if you have dairy allergies it is more likely you have a reaction to either the casein protein or whey protein in milk.
Curds still have a little bit of lactose, but not much. As cheese ages and loses moisture and becomes hard, there is even less lactose left in the curds. The longer a cheese is aged and the harder texture it has, the less lactose remains. Some people who have trouble digesting lactose can eat cheese that has been aged until it has a hard texture. Another option for people who want to avoid lactose is to eat lactose free cheese substitutes.
Some believe that cheese made from goat milk is the easiest type of cheese for lactose intolerant people to digest. Goats' milk basically has the same amount of lactose in it. However, it is naturally homogenized, which can make it easier to digest.
"Naturally homogenized" means the fat globules in the milk are small and remain suspended in the milk rather than separating out. This makes the milk easier to digest. In cows' milk, the fat globules are large enough that they will separate from the liquid and become hard to digest. A way to visualize this is to think about the thick layer of fat that rises to the top of cream made from cow's milk.