Goat cheese tends to draw strong reactions. Either people love it, or they hate it. For goat cheese lovers, there are endless varieties of goat cheese to try. For those of you who haven't fallen in love yet, don't give up on goat cheese entirely. There are so many different types of goat cheese, each with its own unique flavor and texture.
1. How Goat Cheese is Made
Cheese curds wrapped in cheesecloth and hanging so moisture drips out. Photo by J. Meier
The production of goat cheese follows many of the same basic cheesemaking steps
as other types of cheese:
- Gathering the Milk: Some cheesemakers source their milk from nearby farms, others own goats and do the milking themselves.
- Pasteurized or Unpasteurized: Some cheesemakers pasteurize their milk, others do not. In the United States, cheese made from raw milk must be aged for at least 60 days before it is sold. Therefore, fresh goat cheese (aged less than 60 days) sold in the US is always made from pasteurized milk.
- Acidification: Starter culture is added to the milk to change lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid and alter the acidity level of the milk. This kick-starts the thickening of the milk into curds. Rennet is then added to further encourage curds to form. If you're making goat cheese at home, you can use a short-cut method without rennet and starter (see below).
- Separating Curds and Whey: For very soft cheeses, like fresh goat cheese, the curds might just be wrapped in cheesecloth and hung so moisture drips out of the curds. For most other cheeses, the curds are cut using a knife or a tool that resembles a rake. Cutting and pressing the curds further encourages them to expel liquid, or whey. Soft cheeses are cut into large curds; harder cheeses are cut into tiny curds so that as much moisture drains out as possible.
- Salting: Adds flavor and acts as a preservative
- Shaping: The curds are put into some sort of form (basket, mold, ring, etc) to form a shape. Fresh goat cheese comes in many different shapes such as logs, pucks, crottins, pyramids, etc..or is sold unformed in a container. Semi-hard or hard goat cheese is often sold in wheels.
- Ripening: Fresh goat cheese ripens (ages) for only a few days or weeks. Other types of goat cheese age for many months.
2. How to Make Goat Cheese at Home
Homemade goat cheese made with vinegar. Photo by Jennifer Meier
You can certainly make goat cheese at home using starter culture and rennet.
You can also make fresh goat cheese by simply combining goat's milk and either vinegar or lemon juice. Find the detailed recipe for homemade goat cheese here, but essentially the process is this: Heat 1 quart of goat's milk until right when it reaches a gently boil Turn off the heat and add 1/4 cup (or slightly more) lemon juice or white vinegar Let set 10 minutes so curds form Pour the curds into cheesecloth Bundle the cheesecloth around the curds and hang the bundle so the moisture drips out for 1-2 hours Mix the curds with salt and other seasonings
3. The Different Types of Goat Cheese
Goat's milk brie. Photo by Jennifer Meier
There are so many different types of goat cheese sold in cheese shops that it's impossible to keep track of them all. You will, however, find that they all fall into several categories: Fresh Goat Cheese: Also called chevre (the French word for goat) covers any type of goat's milk cheese that is soft and often spreadable. It can be sold loose in containers or in various shapes such as logs, pucks (rounds),etc. In cheese shops look for Chevrot, Petit Billy, and Bucheron. Ash-Covered Goat Cheese: A sub-category of fresh goat cheese. Ash-covered goat cheese has a thin bluish-gray rind made from ash. This rind both protects the cheese and gives it visual appeal. In cheese shops looks for Selles-sur-Cher, Sainte-Maure de Touraine, and Acapella. One type of popular goat cheese, Humboldt Fog, has a line of ash through the middle of the cheese. Aged Goat Cheese: Any type of goat cheese that has been aged until it has a semi-hard or hard texture. In many cases, aged goat cheese has a less tangy, "goaty" flavor. Instead, the flavor ranges from nutty to sweet or sharp. In cheese shops look for goat's milk gouda, garrotxa and Drunken Goat.